Everything You Need To Know About Chemistry Elements
In the scientific world, every element around us is made up of chemical elements. These chemical elements are found in the earth crust. Majority of the elements, minerals, metal and non-metal are found in the earth crust.
There are about 115 elements. Out of which, 80% is metals and the remaining of them is non-metals. All the elements are available in only two categories: metals and non-metals.
Physical properties of Metals and Non-metals:
Below are mentioned are some of the properties of metals and non-metals. They are as follows:
- Malleability: Malleable means when a substance can be beaten into a thin sheet. Non-metals are not malleable and metals are malleable.
- Ductility: Ductility means when a substance can be made into thin wires. Metals are ductile. Non-metals are not ductile.
- Hardness: Metals are hard and can be cut by a knife while non-metals are not hard.
- Conduction of electricity: Non-metals are bad conductors of electricity where as metals are good conductors of electricity.
- Conduction Heat: Metals are good conductors of heat where as non-metals are bad conductors of heat.
- Sonority: Sonority means when a substance makes sound by striking hard on to a surface. Metals are sonorous. Non-metals are not sonorous.
- Luster: Metals are shiny in nature where as non-metals do not have a shiny surface.
These are some of the basic information of metals and non-metals. You can learn more about their chemical reactions, formulas from the class 10 chemistry books. This is part of the metals and non-metals class 10 CBSC textbook.
The position of metals and non-metals in the Periodic Table:
In the periodic table, the elements on the left-hand side and in the center are the metals (except hydrogen). Metals such as sodium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc, magnesium, calcium etc. are on the left and center of the periodic table.
The elements on the right-hand side of the periodic table are the non-metals such as chlorine, fluorine, oxygen, nitrogen etc.
The separation of the metals and non-metals in the periodic table is done by a zigzag line. The elements placed on the line are called as Metalloids. Metalloids mean when the elements show the properties of metals and non-metals.
Light metals are the one which is placed on the extreme left. Heavy metals are the one which is placed in the center of the table. The metallic character reduces from left to right of the periodic table. Hence, the elements on the extreme left are more metallic while the elements on the right are less metallic.
Periodic Classification of Elements:
It was difficult to organize all the elements with the increase in the discovery of elements. To study these elements in an easier way, scientist divided them into metals and non-metals categories.
The German Scientist, Johann Dobereiner classified the known elements in groups of three elements called as triads. According to him, the three elements in one group have similar properties. There was a limitation to this theory since he was able to make only three triads and was not able to make triads for all the elements.
Newlands’ Law of Octave:
The English Scientist, John Newlands’ arranged the elements based on the increasing order of their atomic masses. He called this arrangement as the ‘Law of Octaves.’ The limitation to this theory was that he was not able to include all the elements. He could arrange only 56 elements in the increasing order.
The arrangement of the elements kept happening with the changes done by the scientist. After this, Mendeleev’s periodic table was made and had its limitations.
Finally, Henry Moseley gave a new property to these elements. He added the atomic numbers to these elements and formed the new modern periodic table. This periodic table consists of 18 groups and 7 periods. This is the one now used and studied by everyone.
To learn more about this table, you refer to the text book of class 10 periodic classification of elements. You will get a detailed version of the table.