The process of tempered glass manufacturing with scientific approach
Tempered glass some time also called safety glass is a modern type of glass. This glass is somehow different from plate glass as it shatters into small pieces when it breaks which makes this glass safe. When a normal glass shatters it converts into harmful, sharp edge pieces which are dangerous and cut fingers while collecting them. However tempered glass breaks into small and light weight pieces which are less harmful. Tempered glass is also durable and contains higher resistance against hits or strikes of hard objects like stone or any other thing.
Glass manufacturing companies use thermal and chemical treatments to make the glass toughened. There is a complete process to create manufacture safety glass. This process creates tensile stresses in the body of glass which gives comprehensive stress to glass surface. So when the glass breaks, the stress component shifts the hitting energy to complete glass equally in a pixel shape. To convert a glass into tempered the comprehensive stress should be 70 megapascals at the least or more. Manufacturing companies increase the surface stress up to 100 megapascals to reduce the size of broken pieces of the glass.
Glass manufacturers use surface stress factor to customize the glass broken pieces size according to the requirements of glass application. Surface stress also gives the extra strength to a safety glass. A tempered glass requires 4 times more energy to break as compared to normal glass. It is because more stress requires more energy to bend the glass till it can break. Due to comprehensive stress it becomes impossible to cut the glass or change the glass size as it does in case of plate glass. Tempered glass doors or windows are not easily cut to pieces so it’s necessary to give it a suitable size and shape while manufacturing.
The complete process of tempered glass manufacturing is just like annealed glass however there is some extra thermal or chemical treatment involved to convert the annealed glass into tempered. Basically there are two types of process to covert annealed glass into tempered or safety glass.
During thermal treat the piece of annealed glass go through from a hot furnace. This furnace heats the glass piece for up to 1k Fahrenheit. After that the glass is cool down rapidly with the help of cool air. This heating and instant cooling gives the surface extra stress which is a basic factor for converting into safety glass.
Application: This process is used to create tempered glass pieces of large size. This process is less costly as compared to chemical treatment however the glass prepared by this process will not have too much surface stress, and it will break in a bit large stones however it is still safe for humans.
The other process which glass companies use is the chemical treatment. This chemical treatment involves ion exchange for stressing the glass surface. In ion exchange the sodium ions are exchanged with potassium ions in the solution of molten potassium nitrate. The potassium ions give the surface of the glass more stress. The ion exchange is done by electron flow or current. The piece of glass is dipped into molten potassium nitrate and high voltage current is passed through from the fluid. The flow of electron shifts the ions of sodium to the other terminal and replace the empty space available on the glass surface with potassium ions. This process gives a bit more thickness to glass because the size of potassium ions is greater than sodium ions.
Application: This process is suitable for glass pieces of complex shapes like the glass parts of electronic items, crockery, sun glasses and cookware items.
I’m Stone Sarah and I love working at Fab Glass and Mirror which is famous in all over the world for its Wide range of best quality Mirrors and Glass Products which are used in home improvement, home furniture, bathroom furniture, glass shower doors, wall mirrors, gym mirrors, dance mirrors, Tempered Glass Tops and Doors. I write about home improvement, home decor, DIY, well being, self improvement, general fitness and motivation.